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Date: 16/3/2005    
Sony Ericsson all set to energize the mobile phone market in India    
Sony Ericsson, the pioneer in innovative and stylish mobile phone solutions, today introduced a new range of six thrilling mobile phones for the Indian market. With the launch of these new phones, Sony Ericsson presented revolutionary ways for consumers to get more out their mobile experiences by capturing, enjoying and communicating with never before seen features and concepts in mobile phones. With these new phones, Sony Ericsson intends to capture a larger market share in the Indian mobile phone industry in the year 2005. The company is confident to appeal to the style and design conscious, yet value driven Indian consumers. more...  
Date: 15/3/2005    
C-Sam Inc for bill payments using cellular phones    
Chicago based C-Sam Inc, a Sam Pitroda promoted company has come out with a patented, secured financial transaction from mobile phones. Called OneWallet or mobile electronic wallet, this would convert cellular phone into a virtual wallet. Pitroda began working on it in 1994 and filed for a patent in 1996. He got it in 1998. C-Sam, the inventor of this service, will sign up with banks and service providers like electricity boards, telephone operators and merchant store chains to provide services to customers. The customer will need to first register at the Wallet Service Centre (WSC) website and get a unique identification number (UID). The wallet will be downloaded on your mobile phone. It will work in all systems, such as GSM and CDMA. Pitroda said customers can securely store details of online bank accounts, credit and debit cards at the WSC. Icons of the credit cards and bank accounts will be displayed on the mobile screen on entering the OneWallet mode. Electricity, telephone and credit card bills will be sent via SMS. If you want one through a credit card, you'll have to just choose a credit card on the screen of your mobile phone and click the 'pay' button. Same for the the on-line bank account. Riding on C-Sam's platform, Japan's Sumiomito bank is offering mobile wallet service to account holders.  
Date: 13/3/2005    
TV, Music and wireless photo printing to dominate this year's biggest US wireless exposition    
Cellphones loaded with features like TV shows, music videos and wireless photo printing will domonate this year's biggest US wireless exposition. According to Industry analysts the most popular phones will have advanced functions that are simple to customise for individual tastes. Mobile companies are of the openion that consumers will soon use phones for everything from viewing television shows and music videos to serious chores like studying, homework, examinations to heart monitoring.    

The CTIA wireless show begins on Mon. Mar. 14, 2005  to Wed. Mar. 16, 2005 at New Orleans, USA. Most US mobile phone operators are planning or building high-speed networks to deliver services like video and music as well as speedy e-mail and picture downloads. While these networks are still under construction the industry is considering radical redesigns to phones, displays and services to ensure the new features are simple to use. Handset manufacturers like Nokia, Samsung and LG Electronics will all showcase phones with cameras and video.    

Nokia will also show off a handset that can receive live TV. It plans to sell such phones in 2006. Qualcomm will also exhibit a rival TV technology it plans to unveil next year. Kodak hopes to profit from the printing of pictures taken on phones and Walt Disney sports network ESPN, which plans to have a mobile service for sports fans this year. 

Date: 11/3/2005    
Sunil Mittal sold his entire personal share holding in Bharti TeleVentures     
Sunil Bharti Mittal, chairman and group managing director of Bharti TeleVentures sold his entire personal share holding in the company for a consideration of over Rs.60 cr. He sold 3,13,005 shares on March 9 and 24,36,995 shares on March 10 of Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited as informed by the company to NSC.
Date: 11/3/2005    
India & China  to drive cellular phones sales    
According to market research agencies like Gartner or ABI Research, India and China will drive the growth curve of cellular phone sales this year. The service providers' focus will be the network expansion into smaller towns. Growth will come mainly from the low-end handset market and the youth. Companies are planning to introduce handset models in India with lower price points to drive volumes. The price of entry level camera phones is expected to fall below Rs.5,000 and colour phones below Rs.3,000.    

The US and Europe markets have already saturated as nearly everyone has already bought a camera and colour screen cellular phone. Something realy exciting should be offered in terms of technology to stimilate these mature replacement markets.     

Analysts are forecasting that global markets will grow by 10% in '05. India's contribution to the global handset market was about 4% in '04 against China's 10%, the Indian market grew much faster than China at 17% over China's 14%. Global sales in '04 finished with around 630m to 650m units world-wide. Analysts feel that '05 sales will touch 700m.    

Date: 11/3/2005    
Teledensity 9%    
According to a TRAI release, India's teledensity touched 9% with the addition of 2m telecom subscribers in February '05. Mobile subscribers lead the growth in February '05 with an addition of 1.6m subscribers compared to the 0.4m subscribers added in the fixed line segment. GSM subscribers added were 1.1m as against CDMA's addition of 0.5m in February '05. Reliance Infocomm continues to be the largest private sector telecom company in the country with a total subscriber strength of 11.2m.    
Date: 10/3/2005    
IDEA Cellular to invest Rs.250 cr. in Gujarat    
IDEA Cellular to invest Rs.250 cr. in Gujarat in the financial year 2005-06 for network expansion in the state. The company plans to expand its network in 75 new towns in addition to the existing 174 towns. The focus is on new strategically important towns and tourist spots to grab in-roamer traffic. It also plans to put up new cellsites at entry points across the state including airports, railway stations and highways. New initiatives will be taken to increase customer satisfaction. IDEA plans to enhance its distribution network by adding 20 new showrooms to the existing 37,200, more IDEA brand shops to the existing 222 and adding 6000 pre-paid retail outlets to the existing 15,900 across the state. As of February 2005 end, Idea Cellular has a subscriber base of around 6.58 lakh in the state, which stands second after Maharashtra among the circles the operator has a presence in terms of revenues and subscriber numbers.    
Date: 9/3/2005     
Rs.9000 crore worth of mobile handsets sold in Indian market     
According to a recent study by ORG-GFK, around Rs.9000 crore worth of GSM Mobile handsets were sold across India last year which is second only to China in cellular phone sales. In January this year around 5 lakh GSM handsets worth Rs.250 cr were sold in top 10 towns alone. The cellular phone prices range from Rs.2000 to Rs.40,000 from entry level to higher end models.There are more than 150 models to choose from and as many as 19 companies from all over the world offering products with latest features like camera with flash, video recording, large memory and display along with GPRS for internet connectivity. Nokia commands 60% of the market share followed by Samsung and SonyEricsson with 13.4% and 7.2% market share respectively. Motorola stands fourth.       
Date: 1/3/2005       
Telecom equipment gets cheaper       
Telecom equipment prices will fall by up to 13% as duties on the import of components and raw materials required to make telecom equipment have been reduced to zero. The equipment manufacturers that will benefit include HFCL, Alcatel, Paramount Communications, Siemens, Birla Ericsson, Sterlite and ITI. Capital equpiment used in telecom networks also carry a zero import duty. Under the IT Agreement, custom duties on 217 items will be cut to zero from March 1. The Budget will encourage MNCs to set up manufacturing facilities in India.       
Date: 24/2/2005      
DSP Merrill Lynch Mutual Fund says "GoMobile!"      
The first mutual fund in India to launch a pull-based SMS service. DSP Merrill Lynch Mutual Fund launches "GoMobile!", becoming the first mutual fund in India to provide an on-demand SMS-based service that enables you to receive timely updates on your mobile phone using a unique short SMS number 67672855 (6767BULL). more... 
Date: 21/2/2005        
Subscribers preferred MTNL's Dolphin in Delhi & Mumbai        
New GSM cellular subscribers in Delhi and Mumbai showed a preference for state owned MTNL's Dolphin services in last two months. MTNL re-started giving cellular connections after completing network expansion and upgradation in the two cities in mid-November. In January, MTNL added 50,102 mobile subscriber in Mumbai and 44,677 in Delhi. It was more than Airtel's 31,310 additions in Mumbai and 12,992 in Delhi as well as Hutch's 39,962 in Mumbai and 8,275 in Delhi. Idea added 18,599 In Delhi last month.        
Date: 17/2/2005      
Samsung D500 won Best Mobile Handset award      
Samsung SGH - D500 won the best mobile handset award from GSM Association at 3GSM World Congress at Cannes in France. The award recognises excellence in handset design and innovation. There were 480 entries from mobile manufacturers across the world. The SGH - D500 showcases the latest multimedia and imaging technology in a compact and elegant style. A powerful business device as well as a multimedia companion, the SGH-D500 incorporates all of Samsung's leading technology into one package: a 1.3 Megapixel camera with flash; video recording with 60 minutes of storage; Bluetooth, Email and syncML connectivity; a speakerphone with enhanced voice clarity; an MP3 music player; 262K TFT screen; 64 polyphonic ring tones; and 96MB of internal user memory.       
Date: 17/2/2005         
Government expects $800m investment from foreign telecom companies         
According to IT and Telecom minister Dayanidhi Maran, government expects around $800m investment from foreign telecom companies in the coming year.The minister had successful meetings with heads of Nokia, Alcatel and Ericsson at 3GSM Congress at Cannes. All the three companies are looking at investing in India to set up their manufacturing facilities.The government has recently taken a decision to raise FDI in telecom sector to 74%. For companies in the manufacturing sector FDI is 100%.          

The main highlights at Cannes were on 3G and HSDPA (High Speed Definition Packet Access). India's policy regarding these would be to adopt a cautious approach and wait until Europe had fully launched both high speed networks. Although wireless broadband would be important for business communications and e-governance plans which would be key for our country. The minister reiterated that the Indian government was fully committed to the telecom industry and was working to ensure both private and state run operators' issues are addressed in a swift and timely manner.         

Date: 15/2/2005           
3GSM World Congress at Cannes, France           
3GSM World Congress ( February 14 -17, 2005) a conference and exhibition at Cannes, France is the world's largest get together of GSM service providers, handset manufacturers, mobile infrastructure, services and applications vendors. This year's Congress has a number of key themes that include - The Business Importance of Technical Innovations, Defining Future Opportunities - No Limits to Growth, Driving Value for the Wireless Services of Today & Tomorrow and Expanding the Boundaries of GSM. In more depth these will look at the technology challenges for the next 12 months, market and value chain evolution, convergence of the internet and wireless worlds, mobile communications as a driver for economic growth, connecting the next billion customers, revolutionary business models, the essential role of the investor and much more.          

Among the key speakers who will address the distinguished audience are Ed Zander, CEO Motorala, Rene Obermann, CEO T-Mobile International, Lomar Pauly, President and CEO Siemens Communication, Miles Flint, President Siemens. India's           
Mr. Sunil Mittal, CEO Bharti Telecom is also a keynote speaker at the Leadership Summit. Mr. Mittal has been recently appointed a GSM board member. The discussions revolve around not only spectrum allocations and standards, but also mobility focus areas based on socio-economic issues in emerging markets such as India and China. Union telecom and IT minister Dayanidhi Maran will also participate as part of the nine country government delegation that will discuss policies and spectrum allocations for their respective countries.           

Date: 12/2/2005           
Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) is decreasing          
According to latest figures compiled by COAI, the Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) is decreasing but it has not affected national cellular revenue growth. The gross revenue last quarter at Rs.3,207.3 crore is nearly 10% more than the Rs.2,930.7 crore registered in the previous quarter. IDEA's quarterly ARPU grew 3% to Rs.376.1, while Bharti and Hutch saw their ARPUs dip 4.5% and 0.8% to Rs.413.8 and Rs.484.1 respectively. BPL posted 1.1% rise in its ARPU during October-December '04.            
Date: 11/2/2005          
Bharti to invest Rs.100 cr in North-East           
Bharti Cellular will invest Rs.100 crore for expanding its network in  Assam and North-East next month. With this Bharti's total investments in eastern states will exceed Rs.1,000 crore. Bharti's eastern regional footprint will soon comprise West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Agartala, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.  Ericsson will provide equipment for the entire Assam and North-East network roll-out. However, all base stations in West Bengal, Sikkim, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa have been supplied by either Siemens or Nokia.            
Date: 9/2/2005             
Samsung unveiled mobile phone with 1.5 GB hard disk &  5 Mega Pixel camera             
Samsung unveiled the first mobile phone in the world with 1.5 GB hard disk drive and 5 Mega Pixel camera with 2 inch display and 16 million colors in a QVGA TFD LCD screen and 32 MB extension memory. Another 3.2 Megapixel camera phone with optical zoom that supports TV output function was also showcased. A model with "Swing Bar" design B100 is the first phone to support satellite digital multimedia broadband (DBM) services and features a MP3, TV output, 4 hours video recording and 2 Mega Pixel camera. Some of the new models would be launched in India in the next  8 to 12 months.             
Date: 9/2/2005             
GSM cellular subscriber figure reached 3.86 Cr.             
The all India GSM cellular subscribers figure reached 3,86,49,590 by 31st Jan '05. Maximum growth was witnessed in the states of Orissa(11.82%), Bihar(9.29%), North East(7.73%), West Beangal + Andaman & Nicobar Islands(6.17%) and Haryana(5.78%) while the all India growth rate stood at 3.29% over the previous month.            
Date: 9/2/2005             
BPL Telecom launched seven GSM handsets             
BPL Telecom launched seven GSM handsets in the range of Rs.3,900 to Rs.11,600. Out of these two are manufactured in-house while the other five are outsourced from Korea. The company has a manufacturing plant in Kerala where it has already invested Rs.24 cr. The hardware and software design is done by its R&D centre in Bangalore. BPL Telecom plans to generate Rs.40-50 crore revenues from its handset business this financial year. The company is planning to launch 20 to 25 models in the next fiscal.              
Date: 8/2/2005              
ACL Launches "India6767"             
ACL Wireless Ltd., the leading provider of Real-Time Wireless Messaging services to mobile subscribers in partnership with Telecom Operators has announced the launch of a Neutral Connectivity Platform - India6767 - positioned to address growing Enterprise and Content Provider requirements to extend select services and real-time interactivity to their mobile-enabled customers across India, over their own unique mobile identity 6767XXXX. With this platform, Clients can rapidly launch their mobile-enabled services over their chosen 6767 Identity. more...              
Date: 5/2/2005               
Hutch consolidated worth Rs. 8,500 cr              
Hutch has finally consolidated its operations in India and its valuation works out to be around Rs.8,500 crore. According to stock exchange filings, post-consolidation, the shares of the new consolidated entity, Hutchison Max Telecom (HMTL) have been issued at a premium of Rs.237.9 per share of face value Rs.10 each.The companies have currently consolidated under Mumbai entity, Hutchison Max Telecom. However, the consolidated entity will shortly be renamed as Hutchison Essar. The consolidation has paved the way for the proposed initial public offer (IPO) of the Hutch group expected in June'05. After the consolidation, the shareholders of HMTL, include the Hong Kong based Hutchison Telecom International (HTIL), the Essar Group, Kotak Mahindra/ Hutchison Telecom International joint ventures, the Hinduja Group and Max India. According to the press release, all requisite Indian government and regulatory approvals, consent and permissions for effecting the consolidation have been obtained.               

As part of the consolidation, the shareholders of the various Hutchison Essar group companies transferred their shares to HMTL in return for the issue of new shares in HMTL. Thus, HMTL has become the holding company for all the cellular operations of the Hutchison Essar group. The various group companies included Hutchison Essar Telecom (HETL - Delhi), Fascel (Gujarat), Hutchison Telecom East (HTEL - Kolkata) which wholly owns Aircel Digilink India, operating in UP East, Rajasthan, Haryana and Hutchison Essar South (HESL-AP, Karnataka, Chennai, Punjab, UP West, West Bengal) and Aircel Digilink India (UP East, Rajasthan, Haryana).               

The consolidated HMTL has a footprint across 13 circles. The consolidation is expected to derive many operating synergies, including more efficient management and a more effective use of resources and funds between the various operating companies. In addition, the management believes that the new consolidated company will be better placed to access the debt and equity markets in India.               

Date: 3/2/2005                
FDI in telecom raised to 74%                
The Union Cabinet cleared a hike in foreign direct investment (FDI) ceiling for telecom sector from 49% to 74%. According to Finance Minister Mr. P.Chidambaram, the security related concerns of the Left have been adequately addressed by incorporating stringent norms for private telecom players. The joint ventures with foreign investments will have to declare shareholding pattern details twice a year to the government. The new norms stipulate that the domestic partner will have the management control and majority Board of Directors will be Indians. the Chairman, MD, CEO, CFO and CTO will have to be Indian residents.                

As per the proposal, FDI would include FIIs, NRIs, Overseas Commercial Borrowings, FCCBs, ADRs, GDRs, convertible preferential shares, proportionate foreign investments in Indian promoters, and investment companies, including their holding companies. Thus, 74% foreign investment can be made directly or indirectly in the operating company or through a holding company.                

Hutchison, Idea, and Bharti, would be the major beneficiaries. The bigger players would be able to raise funds in the international markets through the equity route, while the smaller operators would be able to exit easily. It could also lead to more consolidation, more competition and result in increased choice for consumers.                 

The argument in favour of FDI is that an investment of about Rs.50,000 crore is required in the telecom service sector in the next three years in order to meet growing demands. Such funding cannot be generated in the domestic markets. Therefore, operators found it difficult to meet their requirements.                

Date: 31/1/2005                 
Two billion mobile subscribers globally by 2005 end                
According to a recent study by consulting firm Deloitte & Touche, the global mobile phone market is set to grow to two billion subscribers by the end of 2005 as the market is exploding in Asia and Latin America. The mobile subscriber base in India touched 4.7 crore by the end of 2004. The total subscriber base of GSM services in India reached 3.74 crore where 14 lakh subscribers were added in December'04  while CDMA subscriber base stood at 99.95 lakh, adding 5.1 lakh new users in December.                 
Date: 20/1/2005                  
Alcatel to manufacture GSM mobile handsets in India                  
Alcatel is willing to set up GSM mobile phone manufacturing facility in India with an annual capacity of 50 lakh units to cater to the Asia-Pacific markets. The decision on location of the plant in India will be taken after TCL & Alcatel Mobile floats a wholly-owned subsidiary in India over the next six months. At present, TCL & Alcatel Mobile has three cell phone manufacturing facilities in France, Mexico and China.                  
Date: 19/1/2005                   
Mr. Sunil Mittal, first Indian member to join GSM Association                   
Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal, Chairman Bharti Group has become the first Indian member to join the GSM Association, a global trade association representing the GSM industry, having more than 670 mobile operators serving over 1.2 billion customers worldwide.                    
This recognises the increasing influence of India in the world mobile community. The elected members to serve for a two-year term from January 1, 2005 include Mr.Craig Ehrlich from Hutchison Mobile, Mr. Mauro Sentinelli from TIM, Mr. Lu Xiangdong from China Mobile, Mr. Lu Jianguo from China Unicom, Mr. Jordan Roderick from Cingular Wireless, Mr. Takanori Untano from NTT DoCoMo, Mr. Frank Boulben from Orange SA, Mr. Frank Esser from SFR, Mr.Matthias Schrvter from T-Mobile, Mr.Alan Harper from Vodafone.                   
Date: 17/1/2005                   
Primus handsets to be launched in India                   
Peak Telecom, Denmark, to launch primus mobile handsets in south India initially and will cover the entire country by April 2005. The company has been marketing Primus products worldwide. In India, the handsets will be marketed by Kochi based Peak Mobiles India. Primus is a global telecommunications service provider for voice, wireless, internet and data services in US, Europe, Australia and Asia. The company is targeting a market share of 3% initially of the GSM market.  A feature unique to Primus is the hotkey service, which is a global call saver service, which can save up to 80% for the consumer on call charges. The company is the 6th largest overall voice carrier in the world. Primus handsets would be priced in the range of Rs.1947 to Rs.11,000.                    
Date: 14/1/2005                     
TRAI recommendations on unified telecom licence regime                     
TRAI has issued recommendations on unified telecom licence regime that envisage reducing entry licence fee drastically by over 80%, reducing revenue share to 6% from 10% for category 'A' circles and 8% for category 'B' circles, allowing telecom operators to offer cable television, DTH, TV, radio broadcasting services and internet telephony. The regulator has recommended that there will be four categories of licences - unified licence, class licence, licensing through authorisation and standalone broadcasting and cable TV licence. The licences will be technology-neutral.                      

Under an unified telecom licence, an operator will be able to offer all the telecom services including national long distance (NLD), international long distance (ILD), fixed and mobile access services, cable TV, DTH, TV and radio broadcast and internet telephony.                      
Under class licence, an operator will be allowed to offer all those services which have one way connectivity - VSAT services. Class licence also includes niche operators, who will be allowed to offer fixed telecom services in those districts where fixed rural tele-density is below 1%. Licensing through authorisation will permit an operator to offer infrastructure and bandwidth services to service providers. Standalone broadcasting and cable TV licence will cover those service providers who wish to offer only broadcasting or cable services.                     

In telecom, there are two components of licence fee - one time entry fee and revenue share. The new recommendations propose to reduce revenue share to 6% - 5% for universal service obligation fund and 1% for administrative fee for TRAI.                      

Date: 13/1/2005                     
Samsung launches X-460                     
Samsung has launched a new mobile phone X-460 priced at Rs.9889 (MRP) with multilingual capabilities, 65000 colours, 40 chord polyphonic ring tones, Java games and Internet access capability. The phone comes in a range of colours with the red X460 exclusively designed for the female consumer. It has phone memory of 8 MB and weighs only 75 gms. With WAP 2.0, GPRS and PC link capabilities, the X460 lets you connect to the Internet anytime, anywhere and also transfer files to and from your computer. Its folder LCD design has a 128 x 160 pixels 65K UFB main screen and a 64 x 96 pixels STN secondary screen that enables the user to view data without opening the mobile.                      
Date: 13/1/2005                     
Bharti Tele-Ventures arranged $354-m to expand networks                     
Bharti Tele-Ventures has arranged $354 million fund from Swedish and Finnish sources to expand networks. Of which, $254 million will be provided by Swedish export credit agency  EKN, with a maturity of 10 years. The rest, $100 million, will come from FinnFund for the same period. The funding of $354 million has been arranged at an approximate spread of 35 basis points over Libor. The total cost of funding is approximately 4.4% (as on date), without currency hedge. This long term funding has an average tenure of over 5 years and door-to-door tenure is approximately 10 years. Bharti's cellular networks are largely set up by Swedish equipment supplier Ericsson and in some circles by Finnish giant Nokia.                      
Date: 8/1/2005                        
TRAI ordered Tata & Reliance to withdraw wireless ads                       
TRAI today ordered Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm to withdraw advertisements for fixed wireless services as "Walky - freedom of mobility at landline rates" and "Unlimited Cordless", respectively. TRAI feels these advertisements are misleading and convey the impression to potential customers that the service provided is similar to mobile service. The operators have been directed to file a compliance report in this regard. TRAI has directed the two private operators to withdraw from the market all promotional material, including banners, brochures and information sheets. These operators are able to offer such services as currently ADC (Access Deficit Charge) regulation allows CDMA operators who come under fixed line regulations pass on ISD calls without paying any ADC on calls originating from fixed wireless phones.                     
Date: 7/1/2005                      
14 Lakh GSM subscriers added last month                      
Over 14 lakh new Cellular Subscribers (GSM) were added last month. The total subscriber base of GSM services in India reaches 3.74 crore. The growth rate was highest in West Bengal + A&N (14.21%), North East (12.25%), Orissa (10.11%), J&K (9.31%) and Kolkata (7.78%).                      
Date: 6/1/2005                         
LG has ambitious plans for 2005                        
LG Electronics is targeting 40% growth in turnover in the year 2005 from Rs.6,500 crore last year. It will be driven by the company's IT products and the GSM mobile phone segments.  From January 15th the company will start production of economy models of GSM mobile handsets in India. They expect the category to grow at 10% this year. LG is also looking at exporting the lower end GSM handsets to West Asia and South Africa. The target is to sell 15 lakh units of GSM phones this year with 20% of the sales through exports. In addition, the company will be investing Rs.300 crore over the next five years in R&D for GSM phones in India.                         
Date: 4/1/2005                         
IDEA looks at rural India as the next big market opportunity                         
DoT bids for rural telephony are set to close today. The changed norms specify that the successful bidder puts up the infrastructure and uses it exclusively for a fixed period after which it is a shared infrastructure. As DoT changes the norms for rural telephony, cellular service providers like IDEA see rural India as the next big market opportunity. The company has studied the market and the demography and found that if it enters the next level of towns, the C category, in Maharashtra alone, which are within a 5 km radius of its existing location, it could tap into a potential 7m subscribers. This is in one circle only. The investment, pegged at $100 per subscriber would come down as the market broadens. The issue of viability considers three points - affordable handsets, cost-efficient network technology and a distribution network. If the network is shared, as the DoT has proposed, then costs come down. The RPU is supposed to be Rs.200.                         
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